Papers and journals
This study considers optical network resource allocation from a profit generation perspective with a game, in which service providers bid to lease C-RAN fronthaul paths via auctioning with Vickrey-Clarke-Groves outcomes.
5G-MOBIX: The Spain - Portugal Cross - Border Corridor, results of 5G application in shuttle vehicle use casesPublication date | 08 March 2023
This paper aims to provide an overview of the 5G network deployment and the conclusions obtained after the analysis of the results of two of the use cases carried out in the Spanish-Portuguese cross-border corridor in the framework of the 5G-MOBIX Project.
This paper presents the 5G-MOBIX Greece-Turkey CBC 5G Deployment, discussing the roaming options in relation to technology capabilities, limitations and optimisations, and then summarises the key results from the extensive trials on four selected use cases
The three Horizon 2020 ICT -18 projects 5G- CARMEN, 5GCroCo, and 5G-MOBIX conducted deployment studies on 5G for Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) on European road transportation cross-border corridors based upon upon their target cross-border corridors.
This article takes a close look at the automotive sector and highlights a series of challenges emerging in the context of its inherent (inter)national mobility and the corresponding importance of cross-border and/or multioperator environments.
This paper presents the HD Map portion of the 5G-MOBIX project trial in the Spanish-Portuguese border and explores the sensor data processing technical solution that produces updates to the HD Map.
5G Connected Vehicle and Roadside Infrastructure for Advanced Driving Maneuvers in a Cross-Border ScenarioPublication date | 15 November 2022
The paper details the architecture of the 5G Connected Vehicle and Infrastructure, the technology used, integrations achieved, the CCAM-enabled use cases in the 5G-MOBIX project cross-border trials between Spain and Portugal.
The paper presents an evaluation platform to gather cross-layer measurements, homogenise results, perform comparative assessment of figures of merit, and calculate network and CCAM key performance indicators (KPIs). This work focuses on evaluating real 5G deployments (including 5G-NR) of network operators in CCAM scenarios, with particular emphasis on cross-border settings and service continuity under inter-operator handovers.
This work proposes Competitive Learning based Anomaly Detection (CLAD) as a generic end-to-end approach for unsupervised anomaly detection using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) forecasting model, data imaging and Centroid Neural Networks (CentNNs).
Cloud Assisted Connected and Automated Mobility System Architecture Design and Experimental Verification: The 5G-MOBIX Autonomous Truck Routing Use CasePublication date | 19 July 2022
This study demonstrates the potential usage of 5G networks for cloud assisted connected and autonomous mobility solution with field tests of Autonomous Truck Routing use case in 5G-MOBIX.
The paper proposes and implements a new architecture for CCAM Service Continuity in Cross-Border Corridors that combines a federation of Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) concepts.
This article details the architecture of the Connected Vehicle and 5G Infrastructure that was developed to support the cross-border testing of the 5G-MOBIX project between Spain and Portugal, detailing how these CCAM solutions support the cross-border testing use cases of the project.
White Paper published by 5G for CAM Working Group of the 6G-IA on 6G implications for CAM
This paper presents the Portuguese 5G Connected Vehicle and Infrastructure, developed for 5G-MOBIX cross-border trials between Spain and Portugal. It details the architecture of the 5G Connected Vehicle and Infrastructure, the technology used, how integrations were achieved and how these Portuguese CCAM solutions enable the trialled use cases.
This paper presents the research conducted on the problem of computing task offloading, based on the background of the vehicle platooning assisted by the edge cloud server
This paper researches the car-following control of the autonomous vehicle in high way scenario, combining the lateral and longitudinal movement of the vehicle as to the following control method
This study proposes a cooperative control algorithm for on-ramp merging under continuous traffic flow to deal with real-time on-ramp merging problems
This paper tackles RAN slicing problem in 5G vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications and presents hierarchical-DQN (h-DQN) based Soft Slicing (HSS) method for model-free opportunistic slice management.
The paper presents a mechanism for adapting video streaming settings (i.e. bitrate, resolution) online to optimize the accuracy of video analytic within latency constraints for emerging applications, such as vulnerable road user detection for autonomous driving.
A Control Method with Reinforcement Learning for Urban Un-Signalized Intersection in Hybrid Traffic EnvironmentPublication date | 20 January 2022
This study proposes a coordinated control method with proximal policy optimization (PPO) in Vehicle-Road-Cloud Integration System (VRCIS), where this control problem is formulated as a reinforcement learning (RL) problem.
Autonomous driving requires 3D maps that provide accurate and up-to-date information about semantic landmarks. This paper proposes a pipeline for initiating and updating 3D maps with dashcam videos, with a focus on automatic change detection based on comparison of metadata (e.g., the types and locations of traffic signs).
This article examines the remote driving application and network-level performance of remote driving on a recently deployed sub-6-GHz commercial 5G stand-alone (SA) mobile network
This article presents a review of how resource management solutions have dealt with optimizing millimeter wave radio and optical resources from an autonomic network management perspective.
This article presents a novel on-device Machine Learning (ML)-based fall detection system that analyzes data captured from a range of sensors integrated on an on-board unit (OBU) prototype.
Second in a series of three reports on Achieving Cross-Border Government Innovation, this documents key findings about the innovative ways in which governments and their partners are collaborating to tackle crossborder issues, ranging from regional challenges to success factors associated with cross-border government innovation.
This paper proposes a particle swarm optimisation with linearly decreasing weight (LDW-PSO) to tackle the signal intersection control problem, where a finite-interval model and an objective function are built to minimise spoilage time.
This is the fourth release of this white paper that provides a consolidated view of the architectural efforts developed in the projects part of the 5G PPP initiative and other research efforts, including standardization.
This paper proposes a multi-objective RSUs optimization model, which also considers the three optimization objectives of RSUs deployment cost, communication delay and coverage area, and uses the NSGA-II algorithm to solve the Pareto optimal solution set of the problem.
A shortest job first algorithm for minimizing the average delay of vehicles at the un-signalized intersectionPublication date | 12 October 2021
This paper presents an efficient scheduling technique to reduce the average delay at non-signalized intersections to optimize intersection traffic control with autonomous vehicles
A Scheduling Algorithm for Pass-through of Connected and Automated Vehicle with Different Priorities in Non-signalized IntersectionPublication date | 12 October 2021
This study presents a scheduling algorithm for the passing-through problem of the non-signalized intersection for vehicles with different priorities
This paper proposes a Cloud-Edge-Vehicle (CEV) hierarchical paradigm for the collaborative Vehicle-road Edge Computing System (VECS) and mapped into cyber-physical networks, as well as an improved Complexity Evaluation Method based on K-weighted Entropy (CEM-KE)
This paper focuses on A-to-Be’s contributions to the 5G-MOBIX Project: sensor data processing and HD Map updates to the trial in the Spanish-Portuguese border of connected and automated vehicles using a cloud produced HD Map.
SEP4CAM - A Simulative / Emulative Platform for C-V2X Application Development in Cross-Border and Cross-Domain EnvironmentsPublication date | 29 September 2021
This paper proposes a concept for a simulative / emulative platform for C-V2X applications in order to facilitate the development of advanced CCAM use cases, which combines different simulation approaches with the in-vehicle C-V2X infrastructure.
This article develops a new adversarial online learning algorithm with bandit feedback based on the adversarial multi-armed bandit theory, to enable scalable and low-complexity offloading decision making.
This paper describes a novel 5G multi-access edge computing (MEC) solution that that boosts the selection of interesting neighbour vehicles according to a geographical region of interest (ROI) after applying pertinent adjustments considering vehicles’ dynamics and network communication latencies.
This paper aims to present a new performance measurement tool dedicated to mobile cellular networks, ISEL QoS-Network Performance Evaluation (IQ-NPE). Focussed on the new C-ITS applications and challenges and developed under the 5G-MOBIX project, it is able to extract a wide range of performance parameters at different levels: radio, network layers and application.
This article proposes a Decision Support System (DSS), based on supervised Machine Learning (ML) classification, for selecting the most adequate transmission interface to send a certain message in a multi-Radio Access Technology (RAT) set up.
A parametric quality model to evaluate the performance of tele-operated driving services over 5G networksPublication date | 24 July 2021
This article presents a parametric model to quantify the Key Quality Indicators which affect video-based Tele-operated Driving (ToD) over a mobile network.
Federated Learning-based Scheme for Detecting Passive Mobile Attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge ComputingPublication date | 24 July 2021
This paper proposes a novel federated learning-based scheme for detecting passive mobile attackers in 5G vehicular edge computing.
This section collects the set of papers presented during the IEEE 5G Virtual Summit on Connected and Automated Mobility , which took place on 11 and 12 May 2021.
This article reports progress to trial multi-SIM and edge computing 5G technologies at the multi-PLMN experimental 5G SA testbed of Aalto University, Finland.
This work reviews the vertical applications integration platform-enabling features of 5G for autonomous driving tested on urban public roads. It proposes an enhancement to the 5G vehicle to everything (V2X) architecture by incorporating the information centric communication paradigm.
Focusing on Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) scenarios, wich aims at continuity of service across the continent, and addresses the broad scope of issues involved, which go well beyond technology, contributes to accelerating 5G infrastructure roll-out across Europe.
Machine Learning-based Misbehavior Detection Systems (ML-based MDSs) have been proposed to detect position falsification attacks in vehicular networks. This paper introduces a novel ML-based MDS for the early detection of position falsification attacks.
This paper proposes an innovative software-defined location privacy architecture for vehicular networks.
In the timeframe of this annual report the last set of 5G PPP projects have started. These projects cover vital areas such as 5G innovations for verticals with third party services (ICT-41), 5G core technologies innovation (ICT-42) and, Smart Connectivity beyond 5G (ICT-52).
Inter-PLMN Mobility Management Challenges for Supporting Cross-Border Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM)Over 5G NetworksPublication date | 28 May 2021
The work presented in this study attempts to analyse the requirements for cross-border CAM operation for the five main CAM use cases selected by3GPP, based on input from key European stakeholders (Network Operators, vendors, Automotive Manufacturers etc.).
Consortium Blockchain for Cooperative Location Privacy Preservation in 5G-Enabled Vehicular Fog ComputingPublication date | 25 May 2021
This paper proposes a novel monetary incentive scheme for cooperative location privacy preservation in 5G-enabled Vehicular Fog Computing, which leverages a consortium blockchain-enabled fog layer and smart contracts to ensure a trusted and secure cooperative Pseudonym Changing Processes (PCPs).
This white paper analyses vertical use cases of various domains for their performance KPIs and their mapping to 5G network KPIs. The scope is to identify (based on architectural elements analysis, information flow, etc.) the potential impact on the service performance and user perceived quality.
This paper summarizes the TDD synchronization aspects and considerations for neighbouring TDD networks, with special focus on the cross-border aspects. Exploiting the cross-border deployment of the European Innovation project, 5G-MOBIX, in the Greece-Turkey crossborder corridor.
The potential benefits of 5G for connected and automated mobility are investigated in a cross-border setting, between Kipoi (Greece/GR) and Ipsala (Turkey/TR), based on the user stories developed and implemented to target the specific characteristics of the route to be followed.
This paper presents two solutions to assess latency in Lisbon and Málaga for C-ITS messages. The test scenario is an alternative to the more traditional C-ITS, as it uses TCP/UDP over IP in a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) network, using 5G networks. Additionally, the use of Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) as a dissemination broker is also evaluated.
A Collaborative Merging Strategy with Lane Changing in Multilane Freeway On-Ramp Area with V2X NetworkPublication date | 10 May 2021
This paper presents a collaborative merging model with a rule-based lane-changing strategy in a V2X environment.
Vehicular Communication Management Framework: A Flexible Hybrid Connectivity Platform for CCAM ServicesPublication date | 22 March 2021
This paper proposes a novel vehicular communication management framework (CAMINO), which incorporates flexible support for both short-range direct and long-range cellular technologies and offers built-in Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems’ (C-ITS) services for experimental validation in real-life settings.
Industry perspective: Today’s systems must handle more data from disparate sources, and at the same time be responsive to new and emerging privacy and data retention requirements. Recent developments in distributed ledger technology (DLT) have been applied to some of these challenges, with only limited success.
5G MOBIX – Towards a connected and autonomous mobility in Europe based on 5G potential
This Master Thesis explores approaches for vision-based detection of construction sites on roads using images taken from a single camera such as a dashboard camera, helpful for autonomous driving and navigation solutions for making informed decisions.
This work presents the implementation and evaluation of a symmetric encryption scheme based on disjoint security domains distributed in geographical areas. In the solution, vehicles are able to coordinate and agree on common keys to be used in different security zones. Simulation results show the validity of the zone encryption scheme in diverse vehicular scenarios with different traffic densities.
Industry perspective: We are still in the early days of 5G’s rollout. As many of these new technological capabilities reach maturity, you will begin to see a convergence of technologies that will make up one of the fundamental shifts in the history of industry.
This article proposes a MaaS architecture in 5G V2X networks with some key technologies on MaaS for platooning orchestration. 5G, CAVs, electric vehicles, digital transportation infrastructure, cloud computing, mobile edge computing and big data analytics are all closely intertwined with MaaS in the future.
This publication introduces the results from the tests are carried out with VTT automated vehicle in the KPN (Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company) cellular test-network to understand potential performance improvements when updating 4G network to 5G network for autonomous vehicles.
This paper identifies relevant future 5G enhancements, specifically those specified by Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) releases beyond Release 15, and outlines how they will support the ambitions of highly automated driving in cross-border corridors.
A Coordination Algorithm for Signalized Multi-Intersection to Maximize Green Wave Band in V2X NetworkPublication date | 19 November 2020
This article proposes a new multi-intersection model based on Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) network to capture the features of traffic flow, which employs vehicular communication to obtain real-time traffic information and share it among the adjacent intersections.
The paper presents the HD Map portion of the 5G-MOBIX project trial in the Spanish-Portuguese border and explores the approach of centrally producing and updating the HD Maps as opposed to the more frequent approach of producing and updating them nearer to the Roadside.
This paper describes the cybersecurity and data privacy aspects related to the common Cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM) infrastructure designed for 5G-MOBIX. This architecture comprises three important components: i) the cloud, ii) the networks and iii) the vehicles infrastructures each addressing specific challenges among which x-border issues.
This paper presents a Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility (CCAM) architecture to support the operation of advanced driving services based on 5G cellular networks, which was deployed in 5G-MOBIX, specifically in the Spain-Portugal border.
This paper addresses the main architectural considerations regarding the deployment of 5G networks capable of supporting CCAM functionality at cross border conditions, as formulated by major European Mobile Network Operators.
This article details the implemented solution for Remote Driving and Platooning use cases for self-driving vehicles, where the timely delivery of video is of extreme importance. Experiments in local and LTE networks show that our solution ensures very low end-to-end latency.
This paper proposes an efficient resource scheduling strategy to containerize microservice deployment for better performance of edge services.
5G Trials for Cooperative, Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM) along European Cross-Border CorridorsPublication date | 15 October 2020
Joint White Paper published by 5G-MOBIX, 5G-CroCo, 5G CARMEN and 5G-PPP
This paper provides an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to the integration and communication solutions already in the market to provide personal mobility devices such as segways or electric scooters with low-cost and efficient connectivity.
This paper proposes the treatment of personal data in virtual OBUs (vOBU) instantiated at the edge of the network on the move, so that vehicles and occupants benefit from GDPR guarantees compliant with local country regulations as they move across European borders.
A Center-Rule-Based Neighborhood Search Algorithm for Roadside Units Deployment in Emergency ScenariosPublication date | 10 October 2020
This paper proposes a message dissemination model for Roadside Units Deployment (RSUD) with the V2X network, and a center-rule-based neighborhood search algorithm for evaluating the RSUD scheme by distance instead of accident reporting time in urban areas with large-scale traffic flow.
The solution presented in this article deals with the connectivity of moving objects by developing an on-board unit for energy-constrained vehicles, integrating communication capabilities using the Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies Long Range Wide-area Network (LoRaWAN) and Narrow-Band IoT (NB-IoT) to efficiently collect data.
This paper presents a system that exploits the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to propose a fully-programmable, self-configurable, and context-aware data collection scheme for Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC).
This paper presents a system that exploits the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to propose a context-aware Misbehavior Detection Systems (MDS) to detect Vehicular networks attacks
This paper proposes a positioning system that leverages common infrastructure and services already present in smart spaces to enhance indoor positioning.
This article provides a novel multiobjective optimization framework for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications to improve upon the sum-rate and energy efficiency of uplink NOMA-enabled V2I communications.
This work presents a reference architecture for network slicing (NS) management and its brokering layer that enables NS discovery and dynamic composition.
This 5G PPP / 5GIA white paper provides a) a brief introduction to the Edge computing concept, b) an exhaustive technology review focusing on virtualisation, orchestration, network control, and operational frameworks, c) a discussion about the role of security, and d) an analysis of several business aspects around the Edge ecosystem.
This white paper captures the results of the 5G-PPP Architecture Working Group, which presents the consolidated European view on the 5G architecture design, based on harmonized concepts and requirements from 5G-PPP Phase I, II and III projects.
The solution here presented proposes the concept of virtual mobile devices (vMDs) implemented as Virtual Functions (VxF) and acting as virtual representatives of physical processing devices.
This paper presents a route-based methodology which is pertinent for V2N coverage analysis, which adds to existing cellular networks another key parameter into consideration: the base stations (BS) deployment schema.
This paper provides a comparison between explicit three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations and field trial measurements on 39 GHz frequency, considering three practical and relevant cases for V2V communications. The outcomes shed light on the potential and challenges of using mmWave frequencies for V2V communication.
Editorial introducing the special issue “Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems” (published by journal Electronics), which consists of twelve papers presenting state-of-the-art innovations covering several aspects of several transportation means.
This Bachelor’s thesis examines the possibilities 5G networks offer for automated and connected cars, and compares the requirements of CAVs for data integrity, security, and privacy on transmission channel focusing on possible security challenges.
This paper presents Chameleon, a novel solution for task offloading for visual-based assisted driving.
This work fills the gap of 5G network slicing for IoV, which offers an accurate bandwidth control with a full flow-isolation, essential for vehicular critical systems, and validates it in a realistic vehicular scenario.
This paper proposes a novel, queuing theory based edge capacity planning solution that takes into account both CPU and GPU usages of real-time compute-intensive applications, which satisfies the QoS requirements in terms of response delays while minimizing the number of required edge computing nodes (assuming that the nodes are with fixed CPU/GPU capacity).
New video use cases, which have never been studied in the past in mobile networks, arise when dealing with high bandwidth and low latency video as 5G is being deployed. Careful planning, measures collection and KPI identification techniques are proposed to ensure viability in the real world.
This paper presents a solution to virtualize vehicle OBUs and create a novel Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) layer with the aim of offloading processing from the vehicle and serving data-access requests.
This paper presents a vehicular monitoring platform enabled by LPWAN-based technology, namely Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN).